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Cisgender

A term used to describe people whose sense of their own gender is aligned with the sex that they were assigned at birth. (UN Free & Equal) A cisgender/cis person is not transgender. 'Cisgender' does not indicate biology, gender expression, or sexuality/sexual orientation. (TSER)

Descriptive representation

Representation of a group through the physical presence of individuals who are part of that group. E.g., women's descriptive representation in a legislature would be the number of women elected/appointed.

Feminism

The belief in the social, political, and economic equality of the sexes -- and the advocacy for this equality based on recognition of systemic sexism and gender discrimination.

Gender parity

Another term for equal representation of women and men in a given area, for example, gender parity in organisational leadership or higher education. Working toward gender parity (equal representation) is a key part of achieving gender equality, and one of the twin strategies, alongside gender mainstreaming. (UN Women) Note: In discussions of quotas, parity is often considered 40-60% representation per gender.

Gender-responsive budgeting

Budgeting where a gender perspective has been taken into consideration in all the phases from planning to implementation in order to equally serve the different needs of women and men. (Source: UN Women)

Gender-sensitive parliament

A parliament that responds to the needs and interests of both men and women in its structures, operations, methods and work. Gender-sensitive parliaments remove the barriers to women's full participation and offer a positive example or model to society at large. (Source: Inter-Parliamentary Union)

Intersectionality

A tool for analysis, advocacy, and policy development that addresses multiple discriminations and helps us understand how different sets of identities impact on access to rights and opportunities. (Source: AWID)

Masculinities

The social meaning of manhood, which is constructed and defined socially, historically and politically, rather than being biologically driven. There are many socially constructed definitions for being a man and these can change over time and from place to place. The term relates to perceived notions and ideals about how men should or are expected to behave in each setting. Masculinities are not just about men; women perform and produce the meaning and practices of the masculine as well. (Source: UN Women)

Patriarchy

A traditional form of organising society which often lies at the root of gender inequality. According to this kind of social system, men, or what is considered masculine, is accorded more importance than women, or what is considered feminine. Traditionally, societies have been organised in such a way that property, residence, and descent, as well as decision-making regarding most areas of life, have been the domain of men. This is often based on appeals to biological reasoning (women are more naturally suited to be caregivers, for example) and continues to underlie many kinds of gender discrimination. (UN Women)

Privilege

Social advantages an individual enjoys (but may not be conscious of) due to their membership in a dominant group. There are various types of privilege related to social characteristics including ethnicity, citizenship, class, gender, sexuality, and religion. Privilege is highly dependant on location and time, and individuals can benefit from privilege in certain situations or aspects of life but not others.

Substantive representation

Representation of a group through the effects of their physical presence on the work undertaken, or the presentation of their concerns and interests. E.g., In legislatures, women parliamentarians’ ability to access top leadership positions and shape legislative agendas and processes, or the passing of a bill to guarantee women's rights.

Temporary special measures

Measures aimed at accelerating the improvement of the position of women with a view to achieving substantive equality with men, and to effect the structural, social and cultural changes necessary to correct past and current forms and effects of discrimination against women, as well as to provide them with compensation for inequalities and harm suffered. This term explicitly states the ‘temporary’ nature of such special measures, while the meaning of the term ‘special’ is that the measures are designed to serve a specific goal and not to cast women subjected to discrimination as weak, vulnerable and in need of extra or ‘special’ measures in order to participate or compete in society. The use of special measures does not suggest a special favour but rather an entitlement. Special measures are essential to secure equal opportunities in participation and competition in various fields of social life, where social, health and economic burdens may be placed on women as a result of gender stereotypes or their role in maternity. (Source: EIGE. See also: CEDAW Article 4)

Cisgender

A term used to describe people whose sense of their own gender is aligned with the sex that they were assigned at birth. (UN Free & Equal) A cisgender/cis person is not transgender. 'Cisgender' does not indicate biology, gender expression, or sexuality/sexual orientation. (TSER)

Descriptive representation

Representation of a group through the physical presence of individuals who are part of that group. E.g., women's descriptive representation in a legislature would be the number of women elected/appointed.

Feminism

The belief in the social, political, and economic equality of the sexes -- and the advocacy for this equality based on recognition of systemic sexism and gender discrimination.

Gender parity

Another term for equal representation of women and men in a given area, for example, gender parity in organisational leadership or higher education. Working toward gender parity (equal representation) is a key part of achieving gender equality, and one of the twin strategies, alongside gender mainstreaming. (UN Women) Note: In discussions of quotas, parity is often considered 40-60% representation per gender.

Gender-responsive budgeting

Budgeting where a gender perspective has been taken into consideration in all the phases from planning to implementation in order to equally serve the different needs of women and men. (Source: UN Women)

Gender-sensitive parliament

A parliament that responds to the needs and interests of both men and women in its structures, operations, methods and work. Gender-sensitive parliaments remove the barriers to women's full participation and offer a positive example or model to society at large. (Source: Inter-Parliamentary Union)

Intersectionality

A tool for analysis, advocacy, and policy development that addresses multiple discriminations and helps us understand how different sets of identities impact on access to rights and opportunities. (Source: AWID)

Masculinities

The social meaning of manhood, which is constructed and defined socially, historically and politically, rather than being biologically driven. There are many socially constructed definitions for being a man and these can change over time and from place to place. The term relates to perceived notions and ideals about how men should or are expected to behave in each setting. Masculinities are not just about men; women perform and produce the meaning and practices of the masculine as well. (Source: UN Women)

Patriarchy

A traditional form of organising society which often lies at the root of gender inequality. According to this kind of social system, men, or what is considered masculine, is accorded more importance than women, or what is considered feminine. Traditionally, societies have been organised in such a way that property, residence, and descent, as well as decision-making regarding most areas of life, have been the domain of men. This is often based on appeals to biological reasoning (women are more naturally suited to be caregivers, for example) and continues to underlie many kinds of gender discrimination. (UN Women)

Privilege

Social advantages an individual enjoys (but may not be conscious of) due to their membership in a dominant group. There are various types of privilege related to social characteristics including ethnicity, citizenship, class, gender, sexuality, and religion. Privilege is highly dependant on location and time, and individuals can benefit from privilege in certain situations or aspects of life but not others.

Substantive representation

Representation of a group through the effects of their physical presence on the work undertaken, or the presentation of their concerns and interests. E.g., In legislatures, women parliamentarians’ ability to access top leadership positions and shape legislative agendas and processes, or the passing of a bill to guarantee women's rights.

Temporary special measures

Measures aimed at accelerating the improvement of the position of women with a view to achieving substantive equality with men, and to effect the structural, social and cultural changes necessary to correct past and current forms and effects of discrimination against women, as well as to provide them with compensation for inequalities and harm suffered. This term explicitly states the ‘temporary’ nature of such special measures, while the meaning of the term ‘special’ is that the measures are designed to serve a specific goal and not to cast women subjected to discrimination as weak, vulnerable and in need of extra or ‘special’ measures in order to participate or compete in society. The use of special measures does not suggest a special favour but rather an entitlement. Special measures are essential to secure equal opportunities in participation and competition in various fields of social life, where social, health and economic burdens may be placed on women as a result of gender stereotypes or their role in maternity. (Source: EIGE. See also: CEDAW Article 4)